SHP2 (PTPN11) acts upstream of SOS1/2 to enable RAS activation. Allosteric SHP2 inhibitors (SHP2i) in the clinic prevent SHP2 activation, block proliferation of RTK- or cycling RAS mutant-driven cancers, and overcome “adaptive resistance.” To identify SHP2i resistance mechanisms, we performed genome-wide CRISPR/Cas9 knockout screens on two SHP2i-sensitive cell lines, recovering genes expected to cause resistance (NF1, PTEN, CDKN1B, LZTR1, and RASA2) and novel targets (INPPL1, MAP4K5, epigenetic modifiers). We screened 14 additional lines with a focused CRISPR library targeting common “hits” from the genome-wide screens. LZTR1 deletion conferred resistance in 12/14 lines, followed by MAP4K5 (8/14), SPRED2/STK40 (6/14), and INPPL1 (5/14). INPPL1, MAP4K5, or LZTR1 deletion reactivated ERK signaling. INPPL1-mediated sensitization to SHP2i required its NPXY motif but not lipid phosphatase activity. MAP4K5 acted upstream of MEK through a kinase-dependent target(s); LZTR1 had cell-dependent effects on RIT and RAS stability. INPPL1, MAP4K5, or LZTR1 deletion also conferred SHP2i resistance in vivo. Defining the SHP2i resistance landscape could suggest effective combination approaches.
J Exp Med (2023) 220 (5)